I'll try to give five main categories along with their definitions, what the Bible says about them, and the negative sides to believing them.
Deism teaches that the universe was created and then later abandoned by God. Essentially, God made the world and then left and He no longer answers prayers, does miracles, or really even cares about His creation at all.
The entire Bible disagrees with this. The Bible itself is God revealing Himself to us which shows He has not abandoned His creation. Hebrews 1:3 and Ephesians 1:11 directly contradict deism by showing that it is by God's power that the world continues to exist and by His leading and guidance that all things happen to His glory.
Its not hard to see how deism can lead to hopelessness. This philosophy tells you that God exists, but He doesn't care about you. You can pray, but He won't listen. You can hope for justice but He won't help you get it. You can hope for eternal life, but He won't give it. Your life is nothing more than one of God's old projects that He got tired of and someday it will end and thats it.
Polytheism teaches that there are many gods. Some of them are kind and some are malicious. Some of them rule over the air and others over the sea and others over the land. Think of the Greeks with Zeus and you've got the idea.
The Bible declares that all gods aside from the God of the Bible are worthless idols (Psalm 97:7). Deuteronomy 6:4 says, "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one." There is one God who created the universe, is worthy of worship, controls our eternal destinies, and has the power to save.
Polytheism leaves you constantly vying for the favor of the good gods for protection from the bad gods. Anything one god might promise you or offer you is not a sure thing, because another god might interfere. For example, Poseidon may promise you a long life but Ares may hate you and strike you dead. There is no god to turn to who can always keep his promises and always protect you. None of them can give you any real hope.
Pantheism teaches that the universe as a whole is God. Everything, including you and I, are little pieces of God. Think of Buddhist monks saying, "You must become one with the world," and you'll get the idea.
The Bible shows that God is distinct and separate from the whole universe in Genesis 1:1 which says, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." Everything that exists was created by God and He is distinct from His creation.
The teaching of pantheism robs God of some of His qualities. If the universe is God and God is the universe, then God does not have a unique personality of His own. If a ravenous wolf, meditating monk, spontaneous child, and pair of scissors are all a piece of God, then God doesn't have His own personality. God also cannot be considered holy or good in pantheism. This is because the murderer and rapist are a part of God and so is the evil that they do. It also leads to abandoning your own personality when you believe it. You see your goal as becoming one with the universe as a whole and since God and the universe have no personality, you strive to rid yourself of emotion and everything that makes you you.
Panentheism teaches that God exists and penetrates every part of the universe. God is more than just the universe but is within the universe. God is within everything including you and I. All things are sacred and all things are to be worshiped because all things are divine. Think of the movie Avatar and you'll get the idea.
Deuteronomy 6:4, as mentioned earlier, says that there is only one God. In Isaiah 44:14-20, God laughs at a man who cuts down a tree and uses half of it for firewood and half of it to sculpt an idol which he worships. This idol has eyes but cannot see and a mouth but cannot speak. God calls the idol a lie. The Bible opposes the thought that God is in everything and all things are divine and worthy of worship. God laughs when we worship nature. Romans 1:25 makes a clear distinction between creation and Creator and tells us it is sin to worship creation. The first commandment tells us to worship no other gods for God is a jealous God (Exodus 34:14).
This teaching devalues humanity by putting us on level playing ground with a cow, a rock, of even feces. If all things are divine, then we have no greater worth than anything else. This teaching also leads us to think we don't need to obey God because we are, in a sense, our own gods. Also, when the divine I seek is within me, I end up totally unsatisfied because I'm looking for something greater than me.
Monotheism teaches that there is only one God who created the entire universe and is involved in it. This is what the Bible teaches. Because God cares about His creation, you can pray and put your hope in Him. Because God is all-powerful and no other gods can contend with Him, you can trust that He will keep His promises to you. Because God is distinct from the universe, you can trust that He is good and loving and will one day punish the evil acts that happen within the universe. Because there is only one Divine being, you can find satisfaction in Him alone.
Hopefully, this will help you to grasp where some of the world religions are coming from as well as help you to discern these philosophies when you see them in movies and in culture. You'd be surprised how many pieces of pantheism you can find in movies like the Matrix. Panentheism is growing in popularity in our culture as well. I saw a Julia Roberts movie recently call Eat, Pray, Love that heavily leaned on the idea that there is divinity and God within everything. It makes sense too. Our culture loves to be spiritual, but doesn't love a God who would give us rules are tell us what is right and wrong. Believing that God is within me and all things is a tempting way to be spiritual without a pesky God. But the Bible finds this lacking and our souls find this ultimately unsatisfying.
So now you know. Keep your eyes open! You'll be surprised where you see these worldviews pop up.